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After the fall of Nanjing to the Japanese in 1937, Chengdu briefly served as the capital of China.
It is now one of the most important economic, financial, commercial, cultural, transportation, and communication centers in Western China.
Chengdu Shuangliu International Airport that hub of Air China and Sichuan Airlines is one of the 30 busiest airports in the world, and Chengdu Railway Station is one of the six biggest in China.
Chengdu also hosts many international companies and more than 12 consulates.
The present spelling is based on pinyin romanization; its Postal Map romanization was "Chengtu".
Its former status as the seat of the Chengdu Prefecture prompted Marco Polo's spellings Sindafu, Sin-din-fu, &c.
At the time of China's Xia, Shang, and Zhou dynasties, it represented a separate ancient bronze-wielding culture which—following its partial sinification—became known to the Chinese as Shu.During World War II, the capital city of China was forced to move inland from Nanjing to Wuhan in 1937 and from Wuhan to Chengdu, then from Chengdu to Chongqing in 1938, as the Kuomintang (KMT) government under Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek ultimately retreated to Sichuan to escape from the invading Japanese forces.They brought with them into Sichuan business people, workers and academics, who founded many of the industries and cultural institutions which continue to make Chengdu an important cultural and commercial production center.It has been called the only major city in China to have remained at an unchanged location with an unchanged name throughout the imperial, republican, and communist eras, The Song-era geographical work A Universal Geography of the Taiping Era states that the ninth king of Shu's Kaiming dynasty named his new capital Chengdu after a statement by King Tai of Zhou that a settlement needed "one year to become a town, two to become a city, and three to become a metropolis".can mean either a metropolis or a capital.) There are, however, several versions of why the capital had been moved from nearby Pi County and modern scholars sometimes theorize that the name was a transcription of an earlier name into Chinese characters.